William Kingdon Clifford

William Kingdon Clifford
Clifford William Kingdon.jpg
Født4. mai 1845[1][2][3][4]
Exeter
Død3. mars 1879[1][2][3][4] (33 år)
Madeira øy
Gravlagt Highgate gravlund
Utdannet ved Trinity College, King's College
Beskjeftigelse Matematiker, filosof, universitetslærer
Nasjonalitet Det forente kongerike Storbritannia og Irland
Medlem av Royal Society
Utmerkelser Fellow of the Royal Society
Påvirket avBernhard Riemann
Signatur
William Kingdon Cliffords signatur

William Kingdon Clifford (født 4. mai 1845 i Exeter, død 3. mars 1879Madeira) var en britisk filosof og matematiker.

VirkeRediger

Clifford introduserte det som nå kalles geometrisk algebra, et spesialtilfelle av Clifford algebra.

Clifford var en kraftig motstander av obskurantistiske tankeretninger. Et av hans mest kjente sitater er «det er alltid, over alt og for alle, feil å tro noe uten tilstrekkelig bevis.»[5][6]

Clifford er opphavsmannen til to uttrykk som har gått inn i det engelske språket:

  • Mind-stuff[7][8] viser til hans variant av monistisk filosofi som hevder at bevissthet og materie er ett.
  • Tribal self referer til at individet har et ansvar overfor gruppa det tilhører.

SkrifterRediger

  • Elements of Dynamics, to bind, Macmillan 1878 og 1887
  • Seeing and thinking, London, Macmillan 1879, 1890
  • Common sense of the exact sciences, New York, Appleton, 1885 (red. Karl Pearson), 1888, Nyugitt avJames R. Newman 1946 med forord av Bertrand Russell
  • Lectures and essays by the late William Kingdon Clifford (red. Leslie Stephen, Frederick Pollock), Macmillan 1879, 1886, 1901
  • Ethics of belief and other essays, Prometheus 1999
  • Conditions of mental development, and other essays, New York 1885
  • Selected works, New York, Humboldt publishing, 1889
  • Mathematical Papers, Macmillan 1882 (red. Robert Tucker, Vorwort Henry John Stephen Smith, 658 sider), Nachdruck Chelsea 1968
  • Mathematical fragments, being facsimiles of his unfinished papers relating to the theory of graphs, London, Macmillan 1881
  • Clifford: Postulates of the Science of Space

LitteraturRediger

  • James R. Newman: William Clifford, Scientific American, februar 1953
  • Alexander MacFarlane: Ten British Mathematicians of the 19. Century, 1916, kapittelet om Clifford
  • Jean-Pierre Bourguignon, Hanna Nencka (Herausgeber): Geometry and nature : in memory of W.K. Clifford : a Conference on New Trends in Geometrical and Topological Methods in memory of William Kingdon Clifford (Konferenz Madeira juli/_August 1995), American Mathematical Society 1997
  • M. Chisholm: William Kingdon Clifford (1845–1879) and his wife Lucy (1846–1929), Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras, Bd. 7S, 1997, S. 27–41.
  • M. Chisholm: Such Silver Currents – The Story of William and Lucy Clifford, 1845–1929. Cambridge, The Lutterworth Press, 2002. ISBN 0-7188-3017-2.

Eksterne lenkerRediger

(en) Kategori:William Kingdon Clifford – bilder, video eller lyd på Wikimedia Commons

ReferanserRediger

  1. ^ a b Autorités BnF, 10. okt. 2015, http://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb123884359
  2. ^ a b Brockhaus Enzyklopädie, 9. okt. 2017, William Kingdon Clifford, clifford-william-kingdon
  3. ^ a b Indiana Philosophy Ontology Project, 9. okt. 2017, William Kingdon Clifford, 2826
  4. ^ a b Internet Speculative Fiction Database, 9. okt. 2017, William Kingdon Clifford, 144215
  5. ^ «it is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence.»
  6. ^ The Ethics of Belief 1877:
  7. ^ «That element of which, as we have seen, even the simplest feeling is a complex, I shall call Mind-stuff. A moving molecule of inorganic matter does not possess mind or consciousness ; but it possesses a small piece of mind-stuff. When molecules are so combined together as to form the film on the under side of a jelly-fish, the elements of mind-stuff which go along with them are so combined as to form the faint beginnings of Sentience. When the molecules are so combined as to form the brain and nervous system of a vertebrate, the corresponding elements of mind-stuff are so combined as to form some kind of consciousness; that is to say, changes in the complex which take place at the same time get so linked together that the repetition of one implies the repetition of the other. When matter takes the complex form of a living human brain, the corresponding mind-stuff takes the form of a human consciousness, having intelligence and volition.»
  8. ^ Clifford On the Nature of Things-in-Themselves, Mind, bind. 3, 1878, nr. 9, s. 57–67