Polytonalitet

Polytonalitet er bruken av flere tonearter samtidig innen musikk. Når det er snakk om akkurat to tonearter samtidig, benytter en ofte betegnelsen bitonalitet. Et velkjent eksempel på dette finnes i balletten Petrusjka av Igor Stravinskij. I den andre delen blir det spilt en fanfare der førsteklarinetten spiller en melodi på tonene i en C-durakkord, mens andreklarinetten spiller den samme melodien på tonene i en F#-durakkord. Her låter det dissonerende, men polytonalitet kan i andre tilfelle også konsonere.

Mozart brukte polytonalitet på en komisk måte i Ein Musikalischer Spaß. Seinere i musikkhistorien ble polytonalitet et viktig og seriøst virkemiddel Play

KilderRediger

  • Babiracki, Carol M. (1991). "Tribal Music in the Study of Great and Little Traditions of Indian Music". In Comparative Musicology and Anthropology of Music: Essays on the History of Ethnomusicology, edited by Bruno Nettl and Philip V. Bohlman, 69–90. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-57409-1.
  • Babbitt, Milton (1949). "The String Quartets of Bartók". Musical Quarterly 35, nr. 3 (July): 377–85.
  • Baker, James (1983). "Schenkerian Analysis and Post-Tonal Music", In Aspects of Schenkerian Theory, edited by David Beach, 153–86. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02800-8 (cloth); ISBN 0-300-02803-2 (pbk).
  • Casella, Alfred (1924). "Tone Problems of Today". Musical Quarterly 10:159–71.
  • Crawford, Richard (2001). America's Musical Life: a History. New York: Norton.
  • «Polyharmony». Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary. Virginia Tech. Besøkt 4. august 2007. 
  • Hindemith, Paul (1941–42). The Craft of Musical Composition, vols. 1 and 2, translated by Arthur Mendel and Otto Ortmann. New York: Associated Music Publishers; London: Schott & Co. Original German edition as Unterweisung im Tonsatz. 3 vols. Mainz, B. Schott's Söhne, 1937–70.
  • Jordania, Joseph (2006). Who Asked the First Question?, Logos.
  • Kostka, Stefan, and Dorothy Payne (1995). Tonal Harmony, with an Introduction to Twentieth-Century Music, third edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-035874-5.
  • Leeuw, Ton de (2005). Music of the Twentieth Century: A Study of Its Elements and Structure. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 90-5356-765-8.
  • Marquis, G. Welton (1964). Twentieth Century Music Idioms. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  • Račiūnaitė-Vyčinienė, Daiva (2002). Sutartinės: Lithuanian Polyphonic Songs, translated from the Lithuanian by Vijolė Arbas. Vilnius: VAGA Publishers. ISBN 9785415016303.
  • Seymour, Claire (2007). The Operas of Benjamin Britten: Expression and Evasion. ISBN 9781843833147.
  • Tymoczko, Dmitri. 2002. "Stravinsky and the Octatonic: A Reconsideration". Music Theory Spectrum 24, no. 1:68–102.
  • Van den Toorn, Pieter C., and Dmitri Tymoczko (2003) "Colloquy: Stravinsky and the Octatonic: The Sounds of Stravinsky". Music Theory Spectrum 25, no. 1 (Spring): 167–202.
  • Vincent, John (1951). The Diatonic Modes in Modern Music. University of California Publications in Music 4. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • White, Eric Walter (1970). Benjamin Britten: His Life and Operas. ISBN 9780520016798.
  • Whittall, Arnold (2001). "Bitonality". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
  • Wilson, Paul (1992). The Music of Béla Bartók. Composers of the Twentieth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05111-5.

Eksterne lenkerRediger