Robert Persons

britisk katolsk prest og prest

Robert Persons (alternativt Parsons, født 24. juni 1546 i Nether Stowey i Somerset i England, død 15. april 1610 i Roma) var en engelsk katolsk prest tilhørende jesuittordenen; han dro på hemmelig oppdrag for å stryrke katolikkene i England, opprettet en rekke skoler og kollegier i Frankrike og i Spania, forfattet mange religiøse og politiske skrifter, og oppfordret Spania til å invadere England.

Robert Persons
Portrait of P. Robertus Personius (4671756).jpg
Født4. juli 1546Rediger på Wikidata
Nether Stowey[1][2][3]Rediger på Wikidata
Død15. april 1610[4][1][5][6]Rediger på Wikidata (63 år)
Roma[1][2][3][7]Rediger på Wikidata
Utdannet ved St Mary HallRediger på Wikidata
Beskjeftigelse
8 oppføringer
Katolsk prest, teolog[8][9][2], jesuitt[2][10], geistlig[5], misjonær[11], debattør[11], skribent[1][2], geistligRediger på Wikidata
Nasjonalitet Kongeriket EnglandRediger på Wikidata

Robert Parsons

Liv og virkeRediger

BakgrunnRediger

Robert Persons far var yeoman. Sognepresten på hjemstedet, fader John Hayward, var en tidligere munk, og han hjalp Robert slik at han i 1562 ble sendt til høyrere utdannelse ved St Mary Hall i Oxford. Etter at han hadde tatt sin eksamen ble han i 1568 fellow og tutor ved Balliol College i Oxford.[12] Men han kom i konflikt med Master der, Adam Squire, og likeså med akademikeren og den katolske prest Christopher Bagshaw.[13] Han ble tvunget til å fratre den 13. februar 1574. Det var fremkommet at han var katolikk, og da ble det utilrådelig å forbli.

JesuittRediger

Robert Persons begav seg da istedet ut til kontinentet, etter drøftelser med jesuitten William Good, og der ble han selv jesuitt ved San Paolo fuori le Mura i Roma den 3. juli 1575.

Jesuittenes generalsuperior, Everard Mercurian, var den gang nølende til å innvolvere ordenen direkte i den engelske kirkelige aituasjon. Han ble i oktober 1579 imidlertid overtalt av en italiensk jesuittprovinsial, pater og senere generalsuperior Claudio Acquaviva, etter at kardinal William Allen hadde funnet Mercurian vanskelig å vende. Persons var rask til å skaffe seg oversikt over engelske rekutter til jesuittene, og planla å opprette et samarbeide med de gjenværende sekularprester i England. Han ble utålmodig med fader Goods tilnærming. Fader Campion var klart mindre entusiastisk enn Persons var.[14]

Persons slo følge med kollegaen pater Edmund Campion på Campions misjon til England i 1578. Denne misjon ble imidlertid i overkant farefull ved det at pave Gregor XIII hadde sendt en separat gruppe for å yte bistand til den irske opprøreren James FitzMaurice FitzGerald. Verken Persons eller Campion kjente til dette, men fikk kunnskap om det først da de var i Reims i Frankrike, på vei tll England.Videre via Saint-Omer kom de to jesuittene seg til London. Kort etter ankomsten sammenkalte fader Persons en hemmelig treff med katolske prester i Southwark for å planlegge og koordinere. Deretter reiste Parsons rundt i England som predikant. Mot slutten av 1580 opprettet han et katolsk hemmelig trykkeri i Barking. Der trykket han sine skrifter A brief discourse containing certain Reasons Why Catholics refuse to go to Church og Confessio fidei.

Etter at pater Campion i juli 1581 var blitt arrestert i England, blitt torturert og til slutt henrettet på Tyburn den 1. desember 1581 flyktet Persons fra England for alltid.

Den 30. august 1581 nådde Persons Rouen, der han grunnla en gutteskole. Senere ble skolen flyttet til St. Omer, og senere ble den flyttet til Stonyhurst. Våren 1582 reiste Persons til Spania for å vinne kong Filip II for en invasjon av England. Sammen med kardinalen William Allen håpet han på at den spanske armada raskt skulle erobre England, noe som slett ikke gikk slik. Etter det mislykkede angrepet tilbragte Persons ni år i Spania.

Han håpet på å overrta Allens plass som kardinal etter dennes død, men slik ble det heller ikke. I stedet ble Persons utsett til rektor ved Collegium Anglorum i Roma. Der oppstod hans viktigste verk åndelig sett,Directorium.

I 1588 ble Persons sendt tilbake til Spania, der han opprettet prestskoler i Valladolid, Sevilla og Madrid. I 1594 offentliggjorde han sitt polirisk mest kjente verk, A Conference about the next Succession to the Crown of England[15], swe han går inn for den spanske prinsesse Isabellas tronfølge.[16]

Han døde i Roma 15. april 1610.

Persons ble senere mistenkt for å ha vært hjernen bak kruttsammensvergelsen,[17] men det er feilaktig fordi det var Robert Catesby som lå bak denne konspirasjon.

VerkerRediger

Persons publiserte verker var:[13]

  • A brief discovrs contayning certayne reasons why Catholiques refuse to goe to Church . . . dedicated by I. H. to the queenes most excellent Maiestie. Doway, John Lyon [London], 1580. This work was from a clandestine press in London, printed as a consequence of decisions at a synod at Southwark held not long after Persons and Campion landed. It was aimed at implementing a 1563 declaration of Pope Pius IV that Catholics should not mix with heretics.[18]
  • A Discouerie of I. Nicols, minister, misreported a Jesuite, latelye recanted in the Tower of London. Doway [London], 1580. Printed by Persons at Stonor Park, it concerned a renegade Catholic priest.[19]
  • A briefe censure upon two bookes written in answer to M. Edmund Campians offer of disputation. Doway, John Lyon [really at Mr. Brooke's house near London], 1581. Against William Charke and Meredith Hanmer, who had engaged in controversy with Campion.[19]
  • De persecvtione Anglicana commentariolus a collegio Anglicano Romano hoc anno 1582 in vrbe editus et iam denuo Ingolstadii excusus . . . anno eodem. Also, De persecutione Angl. libellus, Romæ, ex typogr. G. Ferrarii, 1582.
 
Dedication of De persecvtione Anglicana commentariolus (1582) by Robert Persons to Cardinal Filippo Boncompagni
  • A Defence of the censvre gyven vpon tvvo bookes of William Charke and Meredith Hanmer, mynysters, 1582.
  • The first booke of the Christian exercise, appertayning to Resolution [Rouen], 1582. Preface signed R. P. Afterwards much enlarged, under the title of A Christian Directorie, guiding men to their saluation, devided into three books, anno 1585, and often reprinted (40 editions by 1640). This was a major devotional work in English, and was soon adapted by Edmund Bunny to Protestant needs.[20]
  • Relacion de algunos martyres ... en Inglaterra, traduzida en Castellano, 1590. William Thomas Lowndes considered that Persons was the probable author of this work on the English martyrs, as well as its translator into Spanish.[21]
  • Elizabethæ Angliæ reginæ hæresim Calvinianam propvgnantis sævissimvm in Catholicos sui regni Edictvm . . . promulgatum Londini 29 Nouembris 1591. Cum responsione ad singula capita . . . per D. Andream Philopatrum, presb. ac theol. Romanum, Lvgduni, 1592. This Latin work was a detailed rebuttal of a proclamation of Elizabeth I of October 1591, against seminary priests and Jesuits.[22]
  • A Conference abovt the next svccession to the crowne of Ingland, divided into tvvo partes. . . . Where vnto is added a new & perfect arbor or genealogie.... Published by R. Doleman. Imprinted at N. [St. Omer] with license, 1594. The book suggests Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain as the proper successor.[23]
 
Page from Robert Persons's anonymous work of 1594 on the future succession to Elizabeth I, discussing Lady Arbella Stuart
  • A Memoriall for the Reformation of England conteyning certayne notes and advertisements which seeme might be proposed in the first parliament and nationall councell of our country after God of his mercie shall restore it to the catholique faith [...]; gathered and set downe by R. P., 1596. Left in manuscript, the circulation having included Isabella Clara Eugenia. It was first published in 1690 by Edward Gee, as Jesuits Memorial for the intended Reformation of England.
  • A Temperate Ward-word to the turbulent and seditious Wach-word of Sir Francis Hastinges, knight, who indevoreth to slander the whole Catholique cause.... By N. D. 1599. Controversy with Sir Francis Hastings.[24]
  • The Copie of a letter written by F. Rob. Persons, the jesuite, 9 Oct. 1599, to M. D. Bis[op] and M. Cha[rnock], two banished and consigned priests... for presuming to goe to Rome in the affaires of the Catholicke church. This was printed in Copies of certain Discourses, Roane, 1601, pp. 49–67, edited by William Bishop, one of the appellants in the Archpriest controversy; the other appellant named is Robert Charnock.[25][26]
  • A Briefe Apologie or Defence of the Catholike ecclesiastical hierarchie & subordination in England, erected these later yeares by our holy Father ... and impugned by certayne libels printed ... by some vnquiet persons under the name of priests of the seminaries. Written ... by priests vnited in due subordination to the right rev. Archpriest [early in 1602]. Anti-appellant work in the Archpriest controversy.[27]
  • An Appendix to the Apologie lately set forth for the defence of the hierarchie [1602]. A Latin translation of the 'Appendix' was also published in the same year.
  • A Manifestation of the great folly and bad spirit of certayne in England calling themselves secular priestes, who set forth dayly most infamous and contumelious libels against worthy men of their own religion. By priests liuing in obedience, 1602. Anti-appellant work in the Archpriest controversy.[19]
  • The Warn-word to Sir F. Hastings Wastword: conteyning the issue of three former treatises, the Watchword, the Ward-word, and the Wastword . . . Whereunto is adjoyned a brief rejection of an insolent . . . minister masked with the letters O. E. (i.e. Matthew Sutcliffe). By N. D., 1602.
  • A Treatise of Three Conversions of England ... divided into three parts. The former two whereof are handled in this book. . . . By N. D., author of the Ward-word, 1603. Polemical work against John Foxe's anti-Catholic reading of history.[28]
  • The Third part of a treatise intituled of the Three Conversions of England. Conteyning an examen of the Calendar or Catalogue of Protestant saints . . . devised by Fox. By N. D. (forord datert november 1603).
  • A Review of ten pvblike dispvtations or conferences held within the compasse of foure yeares vnder K. Edward and Qu. Mary. By N.D., 1604 (separately paged but issued with third part of 'Three Conversions).
 
Page from A Review of ten pvblike dispvtations or conferences (1604) by Robert Persons. The disputations were those involving Peter Martyr Vermigli (1549); John Madew around the same time; Andrew Perne and Edmund Grindal (23. juni 1549); Perne again; public determination by Nicholas Ridley; Martin Bucer, still in 1549; Hugh Weston in St Paul's Cathedral on 18 October 1553; and the three days in 1554 of Thomas Cranmer, Hugh Latimer and Ridley.
  • A Relation of the triall made before the king of France upon the yeare 1600 betweene the bishop of Évreux and the L. Plessis Mornay. Newly reviewed . . . with a defence thereof against the impugnations both of the L. Plessis in France and O. E. in England. By N. D., 1604. On the debate at Fontainebleau on 4 May 1600 between Jacques-Davy Duperron and Philippe de Mornay.[29]
  • An Ansvvere to the fifth part of Reportes lately set forth by Syr Edward Cooke knight, the King's attorney generall, concerning the ancient and moderne municipal lawes of England, which do appertayne to spiritual power and jurisdiction. By a Catholick Deuyne [St. Omer], 1606. Polemical work against Sir Edward Coke's anti-Catholic reading of the common law.[28]
  • Quæstiones duæ: quarum 1a est, an liceat Catholicis Anglicanis . . . Protestantium ecclesias vel preces adire: 2da utrum non si precibus ut concionibus saltem hæreticis . . . licite possint interesse easque audire [St. Omer], 1607. Pope Paul V had repeated the declaration against Catholics attending Protestant churches.[30]
  • A treatise tending to mitigation tovvards Catholicke-subiectes in England. . . . Against the seditious wrytings of Thomas Morton, minister. By P. R., 1607 (the first part is on rebellion, the second concerns the doctrine of equivocation). Written in the aftermath of the Gunpowder Plot, the work argues for religious toleration in England.[31]
  • The Judgment of a Catholicke Englishman liuing in banishment for his religion . . . concerning a late booke [by K. James] entituled: Triplici nodo triplex cuneus, or an apologie for the oath of allegiance. . . . wherin the said oath is shewn to be vnlawful. . . . 1608. Contribution to the allegiance oath controversy.[32]
  • Dutifull and respective considerations upon foure severall heads . . . proposed by the high and mighty Prince James ... in his late book of Premonition to all Christian princes. . . . By a late minister and preacher in England, St. Omer, 1609 (written by Persons for Humphrey Leech, under whose name it appeared). Argues for tolerance for Catholicism in its integrity.[33]
  • A quiet and sober reckoning with M. Thomas Morton, somewhat set in choler by his advesary P. R. ... There is also adioyned a peece of reckoning with Syr Edward Cooke, now LL. Chief Justice, 1609. Against Thomas Morton, who had argued that recusant Catholics were necessarily disloyal, Persons argued that Catholicism could co-exist peacefully with the Church of England.
  • A Discussion of the answer of M. William Barlow, Doctor of Diuinity, to the book intituled, The Judgment of a Catholic Englishman, St. Omers, 1612 (published after Persons's death, with a supplement by Thomas Fitzherbert). Reply to William Barlow in the allegiance oath controversy.[32]
  • Epitome controversiarum hujus temporis was a manuscript preserved in Balliol College.[13]

FeilattribuertRediger

An Apologicall Epistle: directed to the right honorable lords and others of her majesties privie counsell. Serving as well for a preface to a Booke entituled A Resolution of Religion [signed R. B.], Antwerp, 1601, is by Richard Broughton rather than Persons (as the Dictionary of National Biography says).[34] Some works against Thomas Bell were thought to be by Persons (as in the DNB), but were in fact by Philip Woodward.[35][36][37]

ReferanserRediger

  1. ^ a b c d Autorités BnF, BNF-ID 12064779v, catalogue.bnf.fr, besøkt 13. januar 2021
  2. ^ a b c d e CERL-ID cnp01875134, data.cerl.org, besøkt 13. januar 2021
  3. ^ a b Library of Congress Authorities, Library of Congress autoritets-ID n50078836, id.loc.gov, besøkt 13. januar 2021
  4. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online, oppført som Robert Parsons, Encyclopædia Britannica Online-ID biography/Robert-Parsons, besøkt 9. oktober 2017
  5. ^ a b IdRef, www.idref.fr, SUDOC 02890950X, besøkt 13. januar 2021
  6. ^ Autorités BnF, data.bnf.fr, besøkt 10. oktober 2015
  7. ^ Tsjekkias nasjonale autoritetsdatabase, NKC-identifikator jo2004214979, besøkt 23. november 2019
  8. ^ Gemeinsame Normdatei, GND-ID 11934923X, portal.dnb.de, besøkt 13. januar 2021
  9. ^ Deutsche Biographie, www.deutsche-biographie.de, Deutsche Biographie-ID 11934923X, besøkt 13. januar 2021
  10. ^ Tsjekkias nasjonale autoritetsdatabase, NKC-identifikator jo2004214979, aleph.nkp.cz, besøkt 13. januar 2021
  11. ^ a b UK National Archives ID F54130, discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk, besøkt 13. januar 2021
  12. ^ Pollen, John Hungerford. "Robert Persons." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 25. mars 2016
  13. ^ a b c Lee, Sidney, red. (1895). «Parsons, Robert (1546-1610)». Dictionary of National Biography. 43. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 
  14. ^ The Reckoned Expense: Edmund Campion and the Early English Jesuits : Essays in Celebration of the First Centenary of Campion Hall, Oxford (1896-1996). Boydell & Brewer Ltd. 1996. s. 124 note 22. ISBN 978-0-85115-590-6. Besøkt 25. mai 2012. 
  15. ^ under pseudonymet R. Doleman ([1]); ogaå tilskrevet Richard Verstegen
  16. ^ http://history.wisc.edu/sommerville/123/123%20263%201580s%20%26%2090s.htm. 
  17. ^ «Somerset's fascinating fireworks facts» (engelsk). BBC. 5. november 2007. Besøkt 20. april 2018. 
  18. ^ Conformity and Orthodoxy in the English Church: c. 1560 - 1660. Boydell & Brewer. 2000. s. 214. ISBN 978-0-85115-797-9. Besøkt 16. juli 2013. 
  19. ^ a b c Victor Houliston (1. januar 2007). Catholic Resistance in Elizabethan England: Robert Persons's Jesuit Polemic, 1580-1610. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. s. 28. ISBN 978-0-7546-5840-5. Besøkt 16. juli 2013. 
  20. ^ Robert Parsons (1998). Robert Persons S.J.: The Christian Directory (1582): The First Booke of the Christian Exercise, Appertayning to Resolution. BRILL. s. xi. ISBN 978-90-04-11009-0. Besøkt 17. juli 2013. 
  21. ^ William Thomas Lowndes (1834). The Bibliographer's Manual of English Literature: L - R. Pickering. s. 1227. Besøkt 17. juli 2013. 
  22. ^ Ethelred Luke Taunton, The History of the Jesuits in England, 1580-1773 (1901), p. 148; archive.org.
  23. ^ Clark Hulse (2003). Elizabeth I: Ruler and Legend. University of Illinois Press. s. 102. ISBN 978-0-252-07161-4. Besøkt 17. juli 2013. 
  24. ^ Victor Houliston (1. januar 2007). Catholic Resistance in Elizabethan England: Robert Persons's Jesuit Polemic, 1580-1610. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. s. 95. ISBN 978-0-7546-5840-5. Besøkt 17. juli 2013. 
  25. ^ Thomas Graves Law, A Historical Sketch of the Conflicts between Jesuits and Seculars in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth (1889), p. lxxxvi; archive.org.
  26. ^ Thomas Graves Law, The Archpriest Controversy vol. 1 (1838), p. 235 note; archive.org.
  27. ^ Victor Houliston (1. oktober 2007). Catholic Resistance in Elizabethan England Robert Persons's Jesuit Polemic 1580-1610. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. s. 117. ISBN 978-0-7546-8668-2. Besøkt 17. juli 2013. 
  28. ^ a b Victor Houliston (1. januar 2007). Catholic Resistance in Elizabethan England: Robert Persons's Jesuit Polemic, 1580-1610. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. s. 93. ISBN 978-0-7546-5840-5. Besøkt 17. juli 2013. 
  29. ^ Mack P. Holt (1. januar 2007). Adaptations of Calvinism in Reformation Europe: Essays in Honour of Brian G. Armstrong. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. s. 174. ISBN 978-0-7546-8693-4. Besøkt 17. juli 2013. 
  30. ^ Conformity and Orthodoxy in the English Church: C. 1560 - 1660. Boydell & Brewer. 2000. s. 231. ISBN 978-0-85115-797-9. Besøkt 17. juli 2013. 
  31. ^ Writing and Religion in England 1558-1689: Studies in Community-Making and Cultural Memory. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 1. april 2013. s. 59. ISBN 978-1-4094-7559-0. Besøkt 17. juli 2013. 
  32. ^ a b Victor Houliston (1. januar 2007). Catholic Resistance in Elizabethan England: Robert Persons's Jesuit Polemic, 1580-1610. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. s. 142–3. ISBN 978-0-7546-5840-5. Besøkt 17. juli 2013. 
  33. ^ Victor Houliston (1. januar 2007). Catholic Resistance in Elizabethan England: Robert Persons's Jesuit Polemic, 1580-1610. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. s. 136. ISBN 978-0-7546-5840-5. Besøkt 17. juli 2013. 
  34. ^ Molly Murray (15. oktober 2009). The Poetics of Conversion in Early Modern English Literature: Verse and Change from Donne to Dryden. Cambridge University Press. s. 89 note 77. ISBN 978-0-521-11387-8. Besøkt 17. juli 2013. 
  35. ^ Michael C. Questier (13. juli 1996). Conversion, Politics and Religion in England, 1580-1625. Cambridge University Press. s. 48 note 42. ISBN 978-0-521-44214-5. Besøkt 17. juli 2013. 
  36. ^ Suellen Mutchow Towers (2003). The control of religious printing in early Stuart England. Boydell Press. s. 98. ISBN 978-0-85115-939-3. Besøkt 17. juli 2013. 
  37. ^ Frederick Wilse Bateson (1940). The Cambridge bibliography of English literature. 2. 1660-1800. CUP Archive. s. 327. GGKEY:QNELW3AWW36. Besøkt 17. juli 2013. 

LitteraturRediger

  • Catholic Encyclopedia: Robert Persons (engelsk). 1913. 
  • Ronny Baier: «Parsons, Robert» i Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Bind 21, Nordhausen 2003, ISBN 3-88309-110-3, sp. 1133–1137.
  • Victor Houliston: The Lord Treasurer and the Jesuit. Robert Person's Satirical „Responsio“ to the 1591 Proclamation. In: Sixteenth Century Journal. The journal of early modern studies. Bd. 32 (2001), s. 383–401, ISSN 0361-0160.
  • Ernest A. Strathmann: Ralegh and the Catholic Polemists. I: The Huntington Library Quarterly 1945, ISSN 0018-7895.